Day 162: Rehobo′am Seeks Counsel

Introduction to DIVIDED KINGDOM (with Jeff Cavins)

1 Kings 12:1-19 After the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam was anointed king. Jeroboam, who had been in charge of forced labor under Solomon, fled the country in fear. Against the advice of his elder counselors, Rehoboam abused his laborers by unreasonably increasing his demands on them. This cruel oppression of the workers was a grievous violation of moral law; God would use the consequences of this injustice-and the discontent it caused-to bring about the fulfillment of his will. The northern tribes formally broke away from Judah and Israel was again divided. (CCC 2425)

1 Kings 12:20-33 The severance of the Northern Kingdom from Judah was much more serious than a mere political divide since it involved a division in religious faith and practice. These religious deviations became a form of apostasy, not unlike the cult of the golden calf that developed in the desert in Moses’ absence. Apostasy against the Catholic Faith is a grave sin. (CCC 817, 2089, 2577)

2 Chronicles 10-28 These chapters contain stories of the various kings of Judah who came after Solomon. Whereas the two Books of Kings relate the history of BOTH Judah and Israel, 2 Chronicles focuses primarily on Judah with little attention given to the kings of Israel. The separation between the two kingdoms is downplayed to convey a greater sense of an unbroken DAVIDIC DYNASTY. More concerned with the history of the Temple and the worship of Israel than with its military record, 2 Chronicles evaluates each king primarily according to his fidelity to the prescribed liturgical directives that were inspired by God himself.

Ch 10:1-19 Rehoboam’s decision to increase the burden imposed on the people immediately caused a rift between Judah and the Northern Kingdom. Nevertheless, this division fell into line with God’s plan for Israel.

Ch 11:1-23 This book conveys the idea that the people in the Kingdom of Judah were the authentic Israel rather than those of the Northern Kingdom. The contrasts between the two kingdoms are specifically exhibited in their respective worship. For example, when Jeroboam made himself King of Israel and established his own priesthood and his own form of worship, the Levites in the north fled to Judah to continue the correct worship of the Lord. For his fidelity, Rehoboam was rewarded with progeny and prosperity in the cities he built and fortified.

The Song of Solomon


  • The Song of Solomon is attributed to King Solomon, son of David, and may be in part about him, as he appears as a character in the poem (cf. 3:11).

  • Scholars believe, however, that the book is actually a combination of several love poems from various sources over several centuries that were edited by an anonymous sacred writer to form a poetic epic, probably around the fifth to fourth century BC.

  • Because of the stylistic and allegorical nature of the last seven verses (cf. 8:8-14), some scholars speculate that these lines were a still later addition from the second century BC that directs a veiled criticism at the Hasmonean dynasty (Which we will get to in 1 and 2 Maccabees).


  • Part of the evidence for the dating of this book is that the prophet Jeremiah used the image of the bride who is separated from her bridegroom as a sign of the desolation of Judah after the exile and urged the exiles to look forward to their restoration to Judah as the nuptial joy of being reunited with their beloved (cf. Jer 7:34; 33:10-11).

  • This image of love between the bride and bridegroom can be seen as a celebration of the love between God and the faithful Jews who had been restored to their land in Judah in a new commitment of fidelity.


  • Love is from God, and true human love, which is part of God’s plan for all people, is a reflection of divine love.

  • Our first parents were created in the state of marriage, a faithful and indissoluble union through which new life springs.

  • Their mutual attraction mirrors and reinforces the love of husband and wife, and the union of their bodies signifies the union of their souls.

  • The relationship of the spouses grows through commitment and self-sacrifice as they overcome the trials and challenges they encounter.

  • Although the New Testament does not quote from the Song of Solomon, it compares the love between a husband and wife frequently to the love between Christ and his Church.

  • St. Paul makes this analogy explicit (cf. 2 Cor 11:2; Eph 5:21-33).

  • Christ depicts himself as the Bridegroom (cf. Mt 9:15; 25:1-13; Mk 2:19; Lk 5:34; Jn 3:29).

  • In the Book of Revelation, the Church is portrayed as the Bride of the Lamb, who is the image of Christ (cf. Rev 19:7-8; 21:2).

  • The Song of Solomon is one of the books of the Megillot, or “five rolls,” of the Scriptures that are read on designated Jewish feast days.

Song of Solomon 1-8 This book-sometimes called the Song of Songs, or the Canticle of Canticles-is unique among the books of Scripture: it is a poem of human love that makes no explicit mention of God. Nevertheless, it has long been understood in Jewish and Christian tradition as an allegory about the love of God for his people. This book was one of the biblical texts read in Jewish communities on the evening of Passover, which commemorates God’s liberation of his people from the Egyptians. (CCC 1334, 1363, 2057)

Ch 1:1-4 Throughout this book references are made to the “lover” and “beloved.” At the outset the speaker is the woman who pursues her future spouse. Although her desire for him is great, she cannot approach him unless he beckons, or “draws,” her toward himself. The “lover” thus prefigures Christ who said later, “I am the way, the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but by me” (Jn 14:6) (TYPOLOGY!!!). (CCC 459)

Ch 1:5-17 The imagery implies that the beloved has committed some fault or sin, which is why she pursues her lover so as not to lose him over her misdeed. This is readily seen as Israel’s periodic penitence and reconciliation with God, but it also suggests the Sacraments of Baptism and Penance, which forgive our sins and restore us in grace. Likewise, it points to the Church herself, who is burdened often by the sins of her members and yet made beautiful again through God’s freely given grace. (CCC 825)

Ch 1:7 The Catechism quotes this verse to describe CONTEMPLATIVE PRAYER. St. Teresa of Avila described contemplative prayer as “nothing else than a close sharing between friends...taking time frequently to be alone with him who we know loves us” (The Book of Her Life); it also means seeking the one “whom my soul loves” (Sg 1:7). (CCC 2709)

(*The Didache Bible RSV-CE Ignatius Edition, 2006)

Key Event 41: The Kingdom Divides (1 Kings 12:16-20)

David and Solomon reign over all twelve tribes of Israel and even the surrounding nations. After Solomon, the kingdom divides when Jeroboam leads the ten northern tribes in revolt, resulting in two separate kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south.

Divided Kingdom

  • Solomon’s increasing infidelity sowed the seeds of division throughout the land promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

  • Solomon’s constant consumption of Israel’s resources allowed him to build a great kingdom but at a heavy price to God’s people.

  • His son, like the sons of many tyrants, found it easy to imitate his father’s harshness but not so easy to grasp the political wisdom, or cunning, that would enable him to maintain power.

  • As a result, Rehoboam reaps a bitter harvest of division as he leads the kingdom of Israel into the chaos and dissolution of civil war.

  • David’s kingdom is rent asunder by the third generation, and from that point on it will be a kingdom divided.

  • With no enemies left in the land, Israel turns upon itself, raising the question, “Will peace ever reign over the land where Abraham sojourned?”

  • The period of the Divided Kingdom is recounted in three acts: the division of the kingdom, the resulting northern kingdom, and the resulting southern kingdom.

  • In act one, Solomon’s son Rehoboam is made the new king of Israel.

  • But rather than easing the people’s burdens, Rehoboam increases the hoke placed upon them, and the weight splits the kingdom asunder.

  • Act two follows the story of the NORTHERN TEN TRIBES, who make up the Northern Kingdom and retain the name “Israel.”

  • Tragically, the Northern Kingdom beaks away not simply from the political rule of the Davidic king but also from worship in Jerusalem’s Temple.

  • The Northern Kingdom’s creation of its own cult, in direct opposition to God’s law in the Torah, points the kingdom in the direction of downfall right from its outset.

  • Act three follows the story of the remaining Southern Kingdom, which takes the name “Judah.”

  • Unlike the Northern Kingdom, whose kings all prove unfaithful, the Southern Kingdom will have several heroic kings who prove faithful to God’s law.

  • Eventually, however, the wickedness of the unfaithful kings will lead God’s people to exile and loss of the Promised Land.

  • But even at this dark moment in Israel’s history, the prophets will kindle a light of hope.


  • Just before 1 Kings recounts Solomon’s death, it recalls an incident that will be of immense importance for the division of the kingdom.

  • Solomon promotes an industrious Ephraimite, Jeroboam, to oversee the forces of labor of the house of Joseph (which comprises the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh).

  • When the narrator introduces Jeroboam, we are told not only his father’s name but also his mother’s name, Zeruah (1 Kgs 11:26).

  • This small detail is portentous.

  • As we saw earlier, whenever a king is first named, his mother, the queen mother, is also named; the naming of Jeroboam’s mother points to a royal destiny for Jeroboam.

  • One day, as Jeroboam leaves Jerusalem (perhaps symbolic of his later hostility towards that city), he encounters the prophet Ahijah, who suddenly takes off his new garment and tears it into TWELVE PIECES.

  • Ahijah tells Jeroboam to take 10 pieces because God is going to tear the kingdom from the hand of Solomon and Jeroboam will get 10 tribes.

  • Prophets often gave visual signs that embodied their words.

  • Ahijah makes clear that God’s rending of the kingdom is a punishment for Solomon’s idolatry and sin.

  • In contrast, God promises Jeroboam that he will build him a sure house and be with him if only he “will walk in my ways, and do what is right in my eyes by keeping my statutes and commandments” (1 Kgs 11:38).

  • Jeroboam flees to Egypt for refuge when Solomon hears about this prophecy.

  • After Solomon’s death, all Israel gathers at Shechem to make his son, Rehoboam, king (1 Kgs 12:1).

  • Jeroboam returns from Egypt and is summoned to Shechem to represent the northern tribes of Israel in an embassy who appeal to Rehoboam, saying: “Your father made our yoke heavy. Now therefore lighten the hard service of your father and his heavy yoke upon us, and we will serve you.” (1 Kgs 12:4)

  • It is only here, after Solomon’s death, that the narrative shows clearly just how harsh Solomon’s rule was to the people of Israel; Solomon ended his reign as a tyrant.

  • King Solomon, the son of David, ruled by placing a heavy yoke and hard service upon his people.

  • Jesus, in contrast, will call all to come to himself, for his yoke will be EASY (Mt 11:29-30).

  • Rehoboam asks for three days to consider the request and seek advice of his counselors.

  • Rehoboam first consults his father’s advisors, described as “old men,” who wisely direct him to speak kind words to the people, saying that if he would but serve the people for a day, they will serve him forever.

  • Rehoboam then consults the “young men” with whom he had grown up.

  • What the young men lack in experience, they attempt to make up with bravado, advising Rehoboam to threaten a still heavier yoke and to add, “My father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions” (1 Kgs 12:11)

  • Rehoboam, with supreme folly, listens to his friends and rebukes the people, resulting in overwhelming rejection of the house of David.

  • The only tribe left to Rehoboam is his own tribe, Judah (followed later by the return of the tribe of Benjamin).

  • Rehoboam, still callously foolish, sends Adoram, the taskmaster of the forced labor and embodiment of Israel’s suffering and oppression, to subdue the breakaway tribes.

  • Adoram is stoned, and Rehoboam quickly flees on his chariot.
    Rehoboam soon musters a force of 180,000 troops to fight the rebellion.

  • The number of Rehoboam’s troops equals the total number of forced laborers that his father Solomon possessed (1 Kgs 5:13-16) and shows Rehoboam’s willingness to follow in his father’s oppressive and Pharaoh-like leadership.

  • Before fighting breaks out, the prophet Shemaiah tells Rehoboam not to “fight against your kinsmen” (1 Kgs 12:24), and, surprisingly, he obeys and disbands the army.

  • Clearly, God is willing to allow the rupture within the twelve tribes, but he does not will any bloodshed between them.

  • The ten northern tribes call an assembly and make Jeroboam their king.

  • From this point forward, the royal kingdom is split in two forever.

  • The Northern Kingdom under Jeroboam’s leadership retains the name Israel.

  • The Southern Kingdom under Rehoboam and the line of David will be called by the name of David’s tribe, Judah.

  • Unfortunately for the modern reader, these two kingdoms are not always so designated by the biblical authors.

  • From this point onward, the only way to determine what is meant by “Israel” or “Israelite” is to look to the context in which it is used, and form there determine whether “Israel” refers to ALL TWELVE TRIBES OF THE ORIGINAL KINGDOM, or whether it refers to only the TEN TRIBES OF THE NORTHERN KINGDOM.

  • In addition, since it is the largest and most powerful tribe of the Northern Kingdom, “Ephraim” will also be used at times to refer to the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

Return to Egypt?

  • Jeroboam, an Ephraimite, makes Shechem his new capital, given its location in the hill country of Ephraim, which is the largest and most important of the ten tribes of Israel (later, the capital of the Northern Kingdom will be moved to Samaria).

  • Ahijah’s prophecy is now fulfilled, and Jeroboam’s long exile has ended in royal exaltation.

  • Rather than resting in peace, Jeroboam becomes afraid in his heart.

  • Afraid of losing his newly-established kingdom, Jeroboam makes two calves of gold and declares to the ten tribes, “You have gone up to Jerusalem long enough. Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt” (1 Kgs 12:28).

  • He puts one golden calf in Bethel and the other in Dan, in the south and north of his kingdom respectively.

  • Jeroboam gives his people a new telling of their origins: It was the golden calves that saved Israel, NOT the God who refuses to be imaged in Jerusalem.

  • To facilitate this new religion, he appoints a NEW priesthood, “from among all the people, who were not of the Levites” (1 Kgs 12:31).

  • Now the break with Jerusalem is not simply political, but religious and liturgical as well.

(*Walking With God: A Journey Through The Bible by Tim Gray and Jeff Cavins)

  • So when you read 1 Kings 12 and 2 Chronicles 10 & 11, it sounds almost WORD FOR WORD


  • It is the story of the Kingdom Dividing!!!

  • Remember that 1 Kings is telling the story closer to the source, kind of in REAL TIME

  • Chronicles is the story being RETOLD after the EXILE TO BABYLON

  • The people of Judah were EXILED and then RETURN


  • Confused yet?

  • So am I!

  • The story is the same in these two books

  • Rehoboam is being smart and fortifying the cities in Judah and Benjamin

  • That is smart

  • We also hear about some of his wives and sons

  • But keep this in mind

  • There are some commonalities between 1 Kings 12 and 2 Chronicles 10 &11

  • Rehoboam is the son of Solomon

  • Jeroboam was prophesied to be the next king by the prophet Ahijah

  • Rehoboam was foolish but DIDN’T HAVE TO BE

  • This is one of the mysteries of FREE WILL


  • How does it all work together?


  • Rehoboam asks for counsel and then time to figure out what to do

  • All the people, including Jeroboam, came to Rehoboam and said Solomon was tough on them

  • Yes, Solomon was wise

  • Yes, Solomon built a lot of stuff

  • Yes, Solomon accomplished a lot of things

  • BUT…

  • It wasn’t SOLOMON who accomplished all these things

  • It was the PEOPLE UNDER SOLOMON who actually accomplished all these things

  • Solomon created SLAVERY among HIS OWN PEOPLE!!

  • So unlike Solomon, give them a break, Rehoboam!

  • So the older counselors tell him to go easy on the people and they will love him forever

  • But when Rehoboam takes counsel from the young men (aka MILLENNIALS!! 🤪 I’m just kidding, young people! Please don’t get offended) they tell him to come down HARD on them….WITH FRIGGIN SCORPIONS!! 😱

  • The big question is, where do we look for COUNSEL?

  • Do we look to SOURCES OF WISDOM?

  • Or do we look to the PEOPLE WHO AGREE WITH US?

  • That is a temptation EVERY SINGLE ONE OF US HAVE

  • Older people might actually know something MORE THAN I KNOW

  • Or do I just ask the people I grew up with for counsel?

  • Do I just appeal to those who agree with me?

  • Or do I seek counsel from those who ACTUALLY HAVE WISDOM TO OFFER ME?

  • Rehoboam did not take counsel from those who had WISDOM to offer him

  • He took the counsel from people who told him what he WANTED TO HEAR


  • We can learn MORE from people who are NOT LIKE US than we can from people who are JUST LIKE US

  • Does that make sense?

  • We can learn more from people who have WISDOM rather than from people who JUST AGREE WITH US

  • So what happens?

  • Rehoboam tells them about the SCORPIONS!

  • This doesn’t win a lot of friends

  • Jeroboam and the 10 TRIBES OF THE NORTH secede and establish the NORTHERN KINGDOM

  • So from NOW ON, the Kingdom of Israel refers to the 10 TRIBES IN THE NORTH and Jeroboam is KING

  • The Kingdom of Judah (Two Tribes: Benjamin and Judah) is now the SOUTHERN KINGDOM and Rehoboam is KING

  • Remember, Rehoboam is the son of Solomon, and the grandson of David

  • Here is what Jeroboam realized

  • He realized that if the Israelites were in the NORTH and they have to go to Jerusalem to worship in the Temple, their hearts are going to TURN BACK TO GOD

  • Their hearts are going to belong to God as well as God’s anointed, Rehoboam

  • Who was Rehoboam?


  • So what does the King of the NORTHERN KINGDOM do?

  • He builds places of worship in Bethel (Southern part of the new kingdom) and in Dan (Northern part of the new kingdom)

  • What kind of places of worship does Jeroboam build?


  • Have they NOT learned this lesson YET???


  • But the first thing Jeroboam does as king is LEAD THE PEOPLE INTO IDOLATRY

  • Jeroboam also makes PRIESTS out of ANY TRIBE

  • So the Levitical Priests head back to the Southern Kingdom (although SOME do stay up north and we will see what happens with them)

  • Jeroboam establishes FALSE PLACES OF WORSHIP

  • Jeroboam establishes FALSE WORSHIP (IDOLATRY)

  • Jeroboam establishes a FALSE PRIESTHOOD


  • The People of Israel were called to GIVE GOD GLORY

  • The People of Israel were called to GIVE GOD THEIR HEARTS BEFORE ANYTHING ELSE

  • So what’s happening in the Northern Kingdom of Israel?

  • IMMEDIATELY...😉 they are led into IDOLATRY

  • Things don’t get any better from here on out

  • God will send them PROPHETS

  • God also sends prophets to the Southern Kingdom

  • We will be here for MONTHS in this era so sit back and relax

  • It’s REMARKABLE how rarely how people listen to God’s Word

  • That’s US as well

  • So often WE DO NOT LISTEN to the Word of God when He is speaking to us so clearly

  • Song of Solomon (Also known as Song of Songs or Canticle of Canticles): The Great Adventure Bible says there are three ways people have read this book

  • FIRST, as an Allegory

  • For Jews, it is the story of the relationship between God and his Chosen People of Israel

  • For Christians, it is the story of the relationship between Jesus the Bridegroom and the Church the Bride


  • Another way to say it is EROTIC LOVE POETRY

  • Back in the day, people weren’t allowed to read Song of Solomon until they were of a certain age or certain maturity level

  • It is somewhat RACY 😉

  • THIRD, reading it in the LITERAL SENSE

  • TYPE or PREFIGUREMENT or FORESHADOWING of the union of Christ and His Church or God and Israel (TYPOLOGY!! THE WHOLE BOOK IS TYPOLOGY!!)

  • So as Catholic Christians, we can read this book IN ALL THOSE WAYS because it is ALL THREE OF THOSE THINGS

  • In many ways, we want to acknowledge the GOODNESS of human love, between man and woman





  • Love between OUR GOD AND US, HIS PEOPLE

  • INITIALLY, it was the People of Israel

  • NOW, in the Age of the Church, it is ALL THOSE WHO BELONG TO GOD THROUGH BAPTISM

  • So read this love story, this love poetry

  • It’s going to have some really interesting images

  • For example, behold in Sg 1:15 “Behold, you are beautiful, my love; behold, you are beautiful; your eyes are doves.”

  • It’s going to get a little weirder and more poetic

  • Not only are your eyes doves, but OTHER OTHER THINGS…’ll be fun you guys!!

  • We have 8 days to spend with Song of Solomon



Prayer by Fr. Mike: “Father in Heaven we give you praise and glory. We thank you for all these three books, for Kings, for Chronicles, and now for this first turn into the book of the Song of Solomon. We ask that you please open our hearts to be able to praise your name. Open our minds to be able to just grasp the reality of what happened with the Divided Kingdom of Israel and how that can happen in our own lives as well. Because without you, we are divided. Without you, we are always prone to fail. And so be with us this moment and every moment. In Jesus’ name we pray. Amen.”

Dustin's Insights

1 Kgs. 12:

  • 12:31-33 To ordain as priests those whom God did not call to the priesthood is disapproved by the LORD. In a similar vein, such “cultic infidelities” (New Jerome Biblical Commentary) as tampering with the liturgical calendar in an unauthorized manner–or, in some cases, dispensing with it entirely, as a number of Christian denominations have done today–is met with divine disapproval.

  • On the religious separation of the kingdoms in general: When reading about the divided monarchy, most specifically their cultic differences, I cannot help but think about the divisions among the Body of Christ which exist today. “My soul is sorrowful even to death” (Mt. 26:38) when I ponder our separated brethren who have broken away from the fullness of the Apostolic faith, and I beg our loving and most merciful God to return them safely home–one flock and one shepherd, not hundreds or thousands, but one. “One alone is my dove…” (Sg 6:9).

    • May we also recall that Jeroboam’s religious abominations sprang, originally, from political quarrels. May we take great caution that our political opinions do not influence our faith. We must not ever idolize our political ideologies and make them an article of our faith. Such is abominable to the LORD, and he will make those who do so desolate, as Jeroboam and his accursed stock. “My kingdom does not belong to this world” (Jn. 18:36).

My Study Color Code

Suffering, Martyrdom Places The Church, Sacraments, Divinity Horticultural Imagery People Messianic Kingship Sin, Death, Decay