Exodus 6:2-9 God’s covenants are not ordinary contracts in which both sides benefit in some way through the fulfillment of prescribed conditions; instead, God initiates the covenants in which only the people benefit and fidelity to his promises will be unfailing despite his people’s infidelity. (CCC 62, 2574-2575)
Ch 6:6 I will redeem you: This is the first mention of redemption in Scripture. In the Old Testament, a redeemer was a person who restored the rights of another who has been wronged in some way. Thus, as a sign of his unconditional love, God pledged to liberate his people from the injustices inflicted upon them. The whole purpose of the Incarnation and Sacrifice of Christ on the Cross was to redeem the human race from the oppression of sin. (CCC 44, 62, 580, 802)
Ch 7:1-25 This passage about the miraculous rod points to the power of God and his predilection for Moses and his Chosen People. In each instance, God gives Moses and Aaron instructions; they carry out his command, and the resulting plague causes much suffering. Pharaoh, although wavering at times, remains obstinate and refuses to let the people go. St. Paul gives two of the magicians’ names as Jannes and Jambres (cf. 2 Tm 3:8). Pharaoh’s heart was hardened: The expressions involving a “hardened heart” occur with some regularity in Scripture and indicate not a mere refusal but a STEADFAST REJECTION. The “heart” in this context is the very core of the human person, a place where a decision is not merely reasoned out or felt but is made firm and immutable. (CCC 30, 37, 2563)
Leviticus 5:1-19 For other sins and ritual impurities, particular offerings were applied. The act of the individual penitent expressing his or her contrition for sin is similar to the SACRAMENT OF PENANCE in the New Covenant. The allowances for the poor to offer pigeons instead of lambs shows that God was not seeking the most valuable sacrifice as much as a sacrifice done with the proper interior disposition of contrition. (CCC 1455-1460)
Psalm 47 This psalm alludes to God’s plan for the salvation of the world. The first verses acknowledge that God has made Israel victorious over all other nations, and then the psalm prophesies that ALL NATIONS will be gathered along with the people of Israel. This ancient prophecy becomes especially poignant in Christ’s parables about the Kingdom of God and in his Great Commision to spread the Gospel to ALL NATIONS. The Good News of salvation was to be preached first to the Jews and then to the Gentiles, who would be welcomed as “sons of Abraham” in the Church founded by Christ, who would exercise his full kingship over all nations of the world. (Cf. St. John Paul II, General Audience, September 5, 2001)
God has gone up with a shout: The early Church read this verse as a prophecy of Christ’s Ascension; for this reason, it is prayed at Mass on the Solemnity of the Ascension of the Lord.
(*The Didache Bible RSV-CE Ignatius Edition, 2006)