Key Events

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Key Event 1: Creation (Genesis 1:2:24)

By speaking, God creates “the heavens and the earth”, a phrase referring to all that exists, both the spiritual and the material (CCC 290). Brought forth from nothing, all creatures depend upon God for their very existence at every moment. (Day 1) (The Great American Bible (TGAB) page 17)

Key Event 2: The Fall of Man (Genesis 3:1-24)

The serpent (Satan) tempts our first parents by casting doubt upon God’s goodness, and they disobey God, thereby inaugurating the tragic history of sin and its devastating consequences. Mankind loses trust that God’s ways are ordered towards our happiness (see CCC 397) (Day 2) (TGAB page 18)

Key Event 3: Curse and Promise (Genesis 3:8-24)

After the Fall, pain and laborious work enter the human experience. Nevertheless, in Gen 3:15, God gives the first promise of redemption, known in Christian tradition as the PROTOEVANGELIUM (Latin for “first Gospel”). It points to Mary (the woman) and Jesus (her seed), who will ultimately crush the head of the serpent (Satan) on the Cross. (Day 2) (TGAB page 18)

Key Event 4: The Flood (Genesis 6:1-9:17)

The flood brings the destruction of evil, but salvation for Noah and his family. The biblical symbolism of water bringing death and new life reappears in the crossing of the Red Sea and comes to its culmination in Baptism (see Rom 6:3-5; 1 Peter 3:20-21), by which we enter into Christ’s death and His risen life. The ark becomes a symbol of the Church. (Day 4) (TGAB page 22)

Key Event 5: People Scattered at Babel (Genesis 11:1-9)

The people of Shinar seek to build a tower with its top in the heavens “to make a name for themselves”, repeating the pattern begun in the garden of Eden: man’s attempt to achieve divine power and status on his own-”to be like God but without God” (CCC 398). (Day 5) (TGAB page 28)

Key Event 6: God calls Abram out of Ur (Genesis 12:1-4)

God calls Abram (later “Abraham”) out of Ur in Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq), asking him to leave every human source of identity and protection and to trust entirely in God’s providence. In return, God promises him a great nation, a great name, and blessing for the whole world. Abram responds with obedient faith. (Day 6) (TGAB page 36)

Key Event 7: Melchizedek Blesses Abram (Genesis 14:18-20)

Melchizedek, priest-king of Salem (later “Jerusalem”), blesses Abram and offers bread and wine. He prefigures Jesus, who as priest-king of the heavenly Jerusalem, will offer bread and wine as a true re-presentation of his self-offering on the Cross. (Day 7) (TGAB page 41)

Key Event 8: Covenant with Abram (Genesis 15:1-21, 17:1-11, 22:1-9)

God’s covenant with Abram reaffirms the promises God gave him in Gen 12. In Gen 15:18, God confirms the promise of land, which recalls the “great nation” promise. In Gen 17:6, God foretells that kings will descend from Abram, confirming the promise of a “great name”; He also introduces circumcision as the sign of the covenant (Gen 17:10-14). In Gen 22:16-18, God swears a covenant oath, reinforcing His promise to bless all the nations through Abram’s family. (Day 7) (TGAB page 41)

Key Event 9: Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18:16-19:39)

The men of Sodom transgress hospitality and sexual morality (see Jude 1:7) by seeking to rape the angelic visitors of Lot (Gen 19:4-5, 8). Abraham interceded for Sodom, begging the Lord to spare the city if only ten righteous people could be found (Gen 18:22-23)-but ten were not found, and thus Sodom incurs God’s judgement. (Day 9) (TGAB page 44)

Key Event 10: The Binding of Isaac (Genesis 22)

God asks of Abraham the supreme test of faith: to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac. At the last moment, though, God prevents Abraham from carrying it out. This near offering of Isaac prefigures God’s own act of love in giving up his only Son for the salvation of the world. In response to Abraham’s obedient faith, God swears an oath to bless the entire world-an oath he will fulfill through Christ’s Passion and Resurrection. (Day 11) (TGAB page 48)

Key Event 11: Jacob Steals Blessing and Flees (Genesis 27:1-46)

Through deceit, Jacob steals the blessing that belongs to his brother Esau as firstborn. Jacob in turn is deceived when he attempts to marry Rachel but his father-in-law Laban substitutes her older sister Leah. Laban cheats Jacob several times more, eventually causing Jacob to flee back to his homeland. (Day 14) (TGAB page 54)

Key Event 12: Jacob Wrestles with God (Genesis 32:22-31)

Just before he reunites with his brother Esau, from whom he had stolen the blessing, Jacob “wrestles” with God, a pivotal moment in his journey. Here, Jacob receives the name ISRAEL, which means “to wrestle with God.” This is also the name of the nation that will come forth from his twelve sons. (Day 16) (TGAB page 62)

Key Event 13: Joseph is Sold into Slavery (Genesis 37:12-36)

Joseph, the eleventh and favorite son of Jacob (Israel), falls victim to the ire of his older brothers, who sell him into slavery in Egypt. Falsely accused, Joseph is imprisoned, only to rise to power through his ability to interpret dreams. Through him, God’s providence saves many people from famine - even his own brothers. (Day 19) (TGAB page 66)

Key Event 14: Jacob’s Family Moves to Egypt (Genesis 46)

Joseph is eventually reconciled to his brothers when they come to Egypt because of the widespread famine. Pharaoh allows Israel (Jacob) and his sons and their families to settle in the best of the land of Egypt. (Day 24) (TGAB page 76)

Key Event 15: Israel Enslaved in Egypt (Exodus 1:8-22)

After four centuries, a new Pharaoh comes to power, who decides to reverse course with the descendants of Jacob. Instead of Egyptian hospitality, he institutes oppression, slavery, and ultimately genocide for the Israelites. (Day 27) (TGAB page 91)

Key Event 16: The Burning Bush (Exodus 3:1-6:30)

God appears to Moses in the burning bush, where Moses asks the Lord his name. He responds, “I AM WHO I AM” and reveals His name as Yahweh, which is related to the Hebrew verb “to be”. Israel’s God is not a mere local deity but the one who eternally IS and who holds all things in existence. (Day 28) (TGAB page 92)

Key Event 17: The Ten Plagues (Exodus 7:14-11:10)

After Pharaoh refuses to let the Israelites go, God sends the ten plagues as powerful strikes against the false gods of Egypt, aiming to teach the Egyptians and the Israelites that the Lord is the ONE TRUE GOD. This is an important lesson even for Israel, since after four hundred years of living in Egypt, the influence of polytheism has set in. (Day 30) (TGAB page 96)

Key Event 18: Exodus and the First Passover (Exodus 12:1-14:31)

God instructs the Israelites to slaughter an unblemished lamb and smear its blood on the doorposts and lintels, and they are to eat the lamb along with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Because they do so, the angel of death “PASSES OVER” the homes of the Israelites, slaying only the firstborn of the Egyptians. This final plague sets in motion Israel’s deliverance out of Egypt. (Day 34) (TGAB page 102)

Key Event 19: Crossing of the Red Sea (Exodus 13:17-15:21)

When the Israelites flee Egypt, they find themselves trapped between the Red Sea and the Egyptian army. God MIRACULOUSLY parts the sea, enabling the Israelites to pass through on dry land. When the Egyptians give chase, the water returns and destroys their army. Like the flood, this event prefigures BAPTISM (REMEMBER TYPOLOGY) in the New Testament (see 1 Cor 10:2) (Day 35) (TGAB page 104)

Key Event 20: God Provides Manna (Exodus 16)

After the Exodus, the Israelites journey through the desert, and God sustains them with MANNA, which daily appears on the ground. This heavenly bread ceases when they reach the PROMISED LAND. The manna PREFIGURES the EUCHARIST (AGAIN WITH THE TYPOLOGY!!), which is likewise bread for the journey, sustaining us on our way to OUR PROMISED LAND, the Kingdom of God. (Day 36) (TGAB page 106)

Key Event 21: Covenant with Moses (Exodus 24)
At Mount Sinai, God establishes a covenant with Israel through Moses. This covenant is sealed with a sacrifice, as Moses proclaims, “Behold, the blood of the covenant”(Ex 24:8)-TYPOLOGY!!!!! Jesus uses THESE SAME WORDS at the Last Supper, offering Himself as the sacrifice that seals the NEW COVENANT. (Day 42) (TGAB page 116)

Key Event 22: Golden Calf (Exodus 32:1-35)

Israel’s worship of the golden calf represents a violation of the first commandment and a return to Egyptian idolatry. Though the Israelites are removed from Egypt physically, their hearts remain behind spiritually. Here, as often throughout the Bible, idolatry is accompanied by sexual immorality. (Day 47) (TGAB page 130)

Key Event 23: Appointment of Levites (Exodus 32:25-29)

After the golden calf idolatry, Moses asks who is on the Lord’s side, at which point the Levites step forward (Ex 32:29). Here, the Levites receive the privilege of serving in the sanctuary alongside the priests, who are descended from Aaron (Day 47) (TGAB page 130)

Key Event 24: The Tabernacle (Exodus 36-38)

The Tabernacle is the portable tent-sanctuary that accompanies Israel through its wilderness wandering after the Exodus. The God who revealed His presence on Mount Sinai thus continues to abide with His people. The inner room of the Tabernacle is the HOLY OF HOLIES, which contains the ARK OF THE COVENANT, where the Lord is “enthroned upon the cherubim” (Ps 99:1). The Tabernacle foreshadows the risen body of Jesus, in whom “the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily” (Col 2:9; see Jn 1:14) (Day 49) (TGAB page 134)

Key Event 25: Twelve Spies Sent Out (Numbers 13:1-33)

As the Israelites prepare to enter the Promised Land, they send twelve spies to scout out the land. Ten of these spies give a negative report and discourage the people. Two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, encourage the people to trust in God and to conquer the land, but to no avail. In response to the people’s unbelief, God decrees forty years of wandering in the desert, one year for every day they spied out the land. (Day 62) (TGAB page 196)

Key Event 26: Aaron’s Rod (Numbers 17)

Aaron is Moses’ older brother and Israel’s first high priest. When his priestly authority is challenged, his rod miraculously buds, confirming that the priestly line is to flow through Aaron and his descendants. Aaron’s rod, a symbol of the priestly authority, is to be kept in the Holy of Holies (Num 17:10) (Day 66) (TGAB page 202)

Key Event 27: Moses Strikes the Rock (Numbers 20:1-13)

In response to Israel’s thirst, God directs Moses to strike a rock, and water gushes forth (Ex 17). Later, in a similar situation, God instructs Moses to “tell” the rock to yield its water (Num 20), but Moses instead strikes the rock twice, seemingly because of a lapse of faith (Num 20:12). The water flowing from the rock PREFIGURES (TYPOLOGY!!) the gift of the Holy Spirit, which flows from the crucified and risen Jesus (see Jn 7:37-38, 19:34; 1 Cor 10:4) (Day 68) (TGAB page 206)

Key Event 28: Bronze Serpent (Numbers 21:4-9)

The people again lose faith and rebel, complaining about the lack of food and water (Num 21:5). In response, God sends serpents that bite the people. After the people repent, God instructs Moses to set up a bronze serpent so that all who look upon it may live (Num 21:9). Jesus interprets this event as PREFIGURING himself (TYPOLOGY!!), lifted up on the Cross so that all who believe in him may live (see Jn 3:14). (Day 69) (TGAB page 206)

Key Event 29: Covenant in Moab (Deuteronomy 29:1-29)

In Moab, God renews his covenant with Israel, giving them an expanded law code, which is expressed predominantly in Deuteronomy (Deut 29:1). These new laws are given in response to the BAAL OF PEOR episode (Num 25), in which Israel committed the twin sins of IDOLATRY and SEXUAL IMMORALITY. (Day 75) (TGAB page 258)

Key Event 30: Israel Crosses the Jordan (Joshua 3-4)
Israel, led by Joshua, enters the Promised Land by crossing the Jordan River., concluding the journey begun in the Exodus. Once again God parts the waters, allowing the Israelites to walk across on dry land (Josh 4:23). This will be the very place that the New Testament "Joshua"--Jesus--will begin his public ministry (Mt 3)
(Day 81) (TGAB page 276)

Key Event 31: Fall of Jericho (Joshua 5:13-6:27)
The Israelites are to conquer Jericho by walking around the city for seven days in liturgical procession, let by priest carrying the Ark of the Covenant. In this unusual strategy, when the priests blow their trumpets and the people shout on the seventh day, the walls of the city come tumbling down.
(Day 82) (TGAB page 278)

Key Event 32: Covenant Renewal (Joshua 8:30-35)
After conquering Jericho and Ai, Joshua leads the people to Mount Ebal to renew the covenant, as Moses had prescribed (Duet 27:1-26). This covenant renewal includes sacrifice as well as the engraving of a copy of the Law of Moses on stone (Josh 8:32; Ex 34:29).
(Day 83) (TGAB page 282)

Key Event 33: Southern Campaign (Joshua 9-10)
Upon entering the central part of the Promised Land from the east, Joshua takes control of the southern part of the country (Josh 10:40), including territory from Kadesh-barnea to Gaza on the Mediterranean coast. The people are successful because the Lord "fought for Israel" (Josh 10:42).
(Day 84) (TGAB page 282)

Key Event 34: Northern Campaign (Joshua 11)
After the southern campaign, Joshua moves north, where Hazor is "the head of all those kingdoms" (Josh 11:10). The Lord tells Joshua, "Do not be afraid of them" (Josh 11:6), and the Lord again gives his people victory (Josh 11:8).
(Day 84) (TGAB page 284)

Key Event 35: Tribal Allotment (Joshua 13-21)
Each tribe receives a designated portion of the Promised Land. Reuben, God, and half of Manasseh settle east of the Jordan River (Josh 13). West of the Jordan are Judah, Ephraim, and the other half of Manasseh (Josh 14-15), as well as the smaller tribes of Benjamin, Simeon, Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and Dan (Josh 16-19). Ephraim and Manasseh, the sons of Joseph, are each counted as a tribe since the tribe of Levi has no allotment of land (Deut 10:9).
(Day 85) (TGAB page 286)

Key Event 36: Israel Asks for a King (1 Samuel 8:1-22)
The people as the prophet Samuel to appoint a king for them "like all the nations" (1 Sam 8:5, 20). While a king will be part of God's plan, a worldly kingdom is not--hence, this request is taken as a rejections of God's kingship over his people. In the New Testament, the seemingly insoluble conflict between the people's desire for a human king and God's prerogative as the only King finds resolution in Jesus. (Day 98) (TGAB page 338)

Key Event 37: David Kills Goliath (1 Samuel 17:1-31)

Against all odds, the young shepherd David kills Goliath, a giant Philistine warrior. For centuries, the Philistines had been a thorn in Israel's side. Only with David does Israel begin to gain the upper hand. (Day 110) (TGAB page 358)

Key Event 38: Ark Moved to Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6)

The Ark of the Covenant is the holiest object in all of Israel. As David brings the Ark to Jerusalem, he dances before it with joy. David also acts as a priest--wearing a linen ephod, offering sacrifice, and blessing the people. Luke will show subtle parallels between the Ark and the Blessed Virgin, the New Ark of the Covenant, as she visits Elizabeth on the outskirts of Jerusalem (Lk 1:39-56). (Day 125) (TGAB page 380)

Key Event 39: Covenant with David (2 Samuel 7:1-29)

When David becomes king, he conquers Jerusalem, making it his capital. There he intends to build a temple for the Lord. In response, God makes a covenant with David, promising him an everlasting dynasty, but he reserves the building of the Temple to David's son Solomon. (Day 125) (TGAB page 385)

Key Event 40: First Temple Built (1 Kings 5:1-8:66)

Solomon builds the Temple, which replaces the portable tabernacle that accompanied Israel on its journey to the Promised Land. Like the tabernacle, the Temple recalls Eden, where Adam and Eve enjoyed fellowship with their Creator. As the dwelling place of God, the Temple is also the meeting point of heaven and earth. (Day 147) (TGAB page 414)

Key Event 41: The Kingdom Divides (1 Kings 12:16-20)

David and Solomon reign over all twelve tribes of Israel and even the surrounding nations. After Solomon, the kingdom divides when Jeroboam leads the ten northern tribes in revolt, resulting in two separate kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south. (Day 162) (TGAB page 433)

Key Event 42: Jezebel Leads Israel Astray (1 Kings 18-21; 2 Kings 9)

King Ahab brings trouble on Israel by marrying the pagan princess Jezebel and sharing in her idolatry (1 Kings 16:30-31). Both are devoted to the god Baal and violently opposed to the Lord's prophet Elijah. Using royal authority to commit injustice, Jezebel famously arranges the murder of Naboth and steals his vineyard for Ahab (1 Kings 21). (Day 166) (TGAB page 440)

Key Event 43: Elijah Defeats the Prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:20-40)

In order to demonstrate that the Lord alone is God, Elijah arranges a contest between himself and 450 prophets of Baal. The prophets are challenged to call upon Baal, the god of storm and lightning, to send down fire to consume their sacrificial offering, but nothing happens. When Elijah calls upon the name of the Lord, his sacrifice is consumed with fire from heaven even though he has gone to the extra lengths of drenching his sacrifice with water. (Day 166) (TGAB page 442)

Key Event 44: Israel Falls to Assyria (2 Kings 17:1-23)

In 722 BC, Assyria destroys the Northern Kingdom of Israel and deports much of its population. The ten northern tribes become assimilated among the nations and are for the most part lost to history. (Day 183) (TGAB page 470)

Key Event 45: Foreign Possession of Samaria (2 Kings 17:24-41)

The Northern Kingdom of Israel is known by the name of its capital city, Samaria, which is conquered by Assyria in 722 BC. Assyria forcibly resettles five other conquered peoples in Samaria, resulting in an ethic and religious mix between these resettled Gentiles and the Israelites still left in the land. The mixed people is the origin of the Samaritans referred to in the New Testament (see Jn 4). (Day 183) (TGAB page 478)

Key Event 46: Image of the Five Kingdoms (Daniel 2)

Daniel reveals and interprets King Nebuchadnezzar's dream, in which the king saw an images representing four kingdoms that will rule over the people of God: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome. Daniel prophesies that in the time of the fourth kingdom, God will establish his own kingdom, which will have no end. (Day 238) (TGAB page 1172)

Key Event 47: Judah Falls to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-30)

Babylon invades the Southern Kingdom of Judah and carries the people off into exile in three successive waves: some of the leading people in 605 and 597 BC and then a much larger group in 587 BC. The exile brings the Davidic monarchy to an end. (Day 191) (TGAB page 448)

Key Event 48: First Temple Destroyed (2 Kings 25:8-17)

When the Babylonians defeat Judah once and for all, they destroy the capital city of Jerusalem and burn the Temple to the ground. In exile, the people need to persevere in fidelity to God without a Temple or a functioning priesthood. (Day 191) (TGAB page 448)

Key Event 49: Zerubbabel Rebuilds the Temple (Ezra 3-6)

After King Cyrus of Persia defeats Babylon, he allows the Jews to return from exile. Zerubbabel, the last Davidic descendant mentioned in the Old Testament, plays a key role in leading the return and rebuilding the Temple, a project finally completed in 515 BC. (Day 268) (TGAB page 568)

Key Event 50: Ezra Returns and Teaches (Ezra 7:1-8:36)

As the people return from exile, the priest Ezra helps revitalize the people's commitment to the Torah, God's Law given through Moses. Ezra recognizes that the exile is a consequence of Israel's unfaithfulness, so calling the people to repentance is critical to experiences God's blessing in the land after exile. (Day 270) (TGAB page 572)

Key Event 51: Esther Saves Her People (Ester)

The book of Esther takes place in Susa (modern-day Iran) during the reign of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Xerxes I, 486-465 BC) and shows a young Jewish girl's unlikely rise to prominence. In God's providence, she becomes queen at a time of persecution against the Jews, and through her intervention, her people are saved from genocide. (Day 274) (TGAB page 622)

Key Event 52: Nehemiah Returns and Rebuilds Jerusalem Walls (Nehemiah 3:1-4:23)

Nehemiah's governorship marks a third important development after the Jewish return from exile: In addition to Zerubbabel rebuilding the Temple and Ezra restoring reverence for the Torah, Nehemiah rebuilds the walls of Jerusalem, providing security for the returnees. (Day 273) (TGAB page 580)

Key Event 53: Antiochus Desecrates the Temple (1 Maccabees 1:20-62, 4:43)

The Seleucid king Antiochus IV, who reigns from 175-164 BC, wages a severe persecution against the Jews, demolishing the three key symbols of Jewish identity after the exile: He destroys the city walls (rebuilt by Nehemiah), desecrates the Temple (rebuilt by Zerubbabel), and seeks to eliminate Torah observance (restored under Ezra). (Day 282) (TGAB page 640)

Key Event 54: Purification of the Temple (1 Maccabees 4:36-61)

In response to Antiochus IV's persecution, a priestly Jewish family, later know as the Maccabees, rallies in Judah's defense. Vastly outnumbered, they nevertheless push the Greeks back, win their independence, and rededicate the Temple in 164 BC. The feast of Hanukkah commemorates their victory and the purification of the Temple. (Day 285) (TGAB page 646)

Key Event 55: Annunciation (Luke 1:26-38)

The angel Gabriel greets a young Jewish woman named Mary with, "Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with you" (LK 1:29). Mary responds with great faith and a wholehearted embrace of God's will. Her "yes" is an essential step in God's plan for the salvation of the world, making way for the Incarnation of the Son of God. (Day 313) (TGAB page 1134)

Key Event 56: Baptism of Jesus (Luke 3:21-22)

Jesus' appearance at the Jordan River recalls the completion of the Exodus, when Joshua led Israel into the Promised Land (Josh 3). By accepting Baptism from John, Jesus unites himself with sinful Israel--and all humanity--so that he can lead the people of God through a new Exodus into a new Promised Land, his eternal kingdom. The Holy Spirit descends upon Jesus, anointing him for his messianic mission. (Day 314) (TGAB page 1138)

Key Event 57: Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7; Luke 6:20-46)

Jesus gives the new law on a mountain, just as Moses gave the Old Law from Mount Sinai. Jesus calls his disciples to a new way of life based on the transformation of heart that marks the New Covenant (see Jer 31:31-34), achieved through the work of the Holy Spirit in us (see 2 Cor 3:3). (Day 259) (TGAB page 1272)

Key Event 58: Wedding at Cana (John 2:1-12)

Mary intercedes for a wedding party that has run out of wine, giving us an earthly sign of her heavenly role in bringing our needs to her Son. Jesus turns water--symbolic of the rituals of the Old Covenant--into wine, symbolic of the gift of the Holy Spirit in the New Covenant. (Day 99) (TGAB page 1384)

Key Event 59: Keys to Peter (Matthew 16:13-20)

Jesus gives Peter the "keys of the kingdom" and the authority to "bind and loose," meaning the authority to teach, govern, and forgive sins (see CCC 553; Is 22). Jesus continues to shepherd his people through the successors of Peter and of the apostles--the pope and the bishops united to him. (Day 262) (TGAB page 1288)

Key Event 60: Transfiguration (Luke 9:28-36)

Jesus takes his three closest disciples, Peter, James, and John, up a mountain, where he is transfigured before them. Moses and Elijah appear and speak with Jesus about his departure (literally, "exodus"), which he will accomplish in Jerusalem through his Passion, death, and Resurrection. As at his Baptism, the Father declares of Jesus, "This is my Son, my Chosen; listen to him" (Lk 9:35). The Transfiguration confirms Peter's confession that Jesus is the Messiah of God (Lk 9:20; see 2 Pt 1:16-19). (Day 316) (TGAB page 1348)

Key Event 61: Last Supper (Luke 22:7-38)

Jesus institutes the Eucharist as the sign and memorial of his Passion, telling the apostles, "Do this in [memory] of me" (Lk 22:19). In this way, Jesus establishes the priesthood and empowers the apostles and their successors to offer to the Father Christ's one sacrifice on the Cross for the salvation of the world. (Day 320) (TGAB page 1375)

Key Event 62: Passion (Luke 22:39-23:56)

Jesus' Passion brings salvation history to its climax, atoning for the sins of the world and inaugurating the New Covenant. Jesus is the new Adam, who overcomes the curse of death and reconciles us with God. Jesus completes what Isaac prefigured (see Gen 22), demonstrating the depth of his love by laying down his life for friends. (Day 321) (TGAB page 1376)

Key Event 63: Jesus Gives His Mother to the Church (John 19:25-27)

Jesus entrusts his mother to the beloved disciple and the beloved disciple to her. The beloved disciple represents all disciples, indicating the relationship every Christian now has with Mary, who becomes our spiritual mother in Christ (see CCC 963, 969). (Day 105) (TGAB page 1408)

Key Event 64: Resurrection (Luke 24:1-12)

Jesus' Resurrection marks the beginning of the new creation. His risen body is both heavenly and visible--he is no longer bound by space and time, yet he can be seen and touched (see Lk 24:36-42). His Resurrection is the pledge and foreshadowing of the resurrection of all who believe in him (see Jn 11:25-26; 1 Cor 15:21-22). (Day 321) (TGAB page 1378)

Key Event 65: Ascension (Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:6-11)

Jesus' Ascension marks his definitive enthronement at the right hand of the Father, fulfilling the vision of Daniel, in which the Son of Man ascends to the "Ancient of Days" and receives everlasting dominion (see Dan 7:13-14; CCC 664). Christ's kingdom began with his coming, is now present in the Church, and will reach its fulfillment when he returns in glory. (Day 322) (TGAB page 1419)

Key Event 66: Witness in Jerusalem (Acts 1:1-8:4)

The Acts of the Apostles tells how the first Christians are filled with the Holy Spirit in accord with Jesus' promise. They boldly witness to the Good News of Jesus Christ in three distinct waves: first in Jerusalem, then in Judea and Samaria, and finally to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8). As a result of the initial evangelization in and around Jerusalem, many thousands become believers (Acts 2:41, 47; 4:4; 5:14). (Day 322) (TGAB page 1419)

Key Event 66a: Pentecost (Acts 2:1-13)

After Jesus' Ascension, the Holy Spirit descends upon the fledgling Church as Jesus promised (see Jn 15:26; Acts 1:4), empowering them to proclaim the mighty works of God. The disciples, who were formerly paralyzed by fear (Jn 20:19), now evangelize boldly, undaunted by threats and persecution (Acts 2:14-36, 4:5-12). (Day 323) (TGAB page 1420)

Key Event 66b: Choosing of the Seven (Diaconate) (Acts 6:1-7)

To enable the apostles to preach the Word of God freely, seven deacons are ordained to serve the poor, a ministry that empowers the growth of the Church (Acts 6:7). (Day 327) (TGAB page 1426)

Key Event 66c: Stephen Martyred (Acts 6:8-7:60)

Stephen, one of the deacons ordained in Acts 6, becomes the Church's first martyr. His death has numerous parallels with that of Jesus, showing that Christian life is a recapitulation of Christ's life in us. (Day 327) (TGAB page 1426)

Key Event 67: Witness in Judea and Samaria (Acts 8:4-13:1)

As a result of Stephen's martyrdom, the Church in Jerusalem in scattered (Acts 8:1). Rather than being discouraged, the Christians take advantage of their situation to bring the gospel to the regions of Judea and Samaria and even Galilee and Syria. It is during this time, in the city of Antioch, that the believers are first called Christians (Acts 11:26). (Day 329) (TGAB page 1428)

Key Event 67a: Saul's Conversion (Acts 9)

On the road to Damascus, Saul, the fierce persecutor of the Church, sees a blinding light. It is the risen Jesus, who asks Saul, "Why do you persecute me?" (Acts 9:4). This encounter transforms Saul into one of the greatest missionaries of the church and plants the seeds of his later understanding of the Church as the Body of Christ. (Day 330) (TGAB page 1430)

Key Event 67b: Peter's Vision (Acts 10)

Peter receives a vision signifying that the Gentiles are to be embraced as full members of the Church, without being required to keep the Mosaic Law. The Holy Spirit falls up Cornelius and his friends, leading Peter to baptize these first Gentile converts. (Day 331) (TGAB page 1432)

Key Event 67c: Peter's Arrest and Deliverance (Acts 12)

Herod Agrippa I kills James, son of Zebedee and brother of John, and proceeds to arrest Peter. Miraculously, an angel of the Lord rescues Peter from prison. Shortly thereafter, Herod dies unexpectedly after accepting divine praises for himself (see Acts 12:20-23). (Day 333) (TGAB page 1434)

Key Event 68: Witness to the Ends of the Earth (Acts 13:1-28:31)

The continued spread of Christianity leads to churches being founded throughout the Roman Empire. Presbyters, whom today we refer to as priests and bishops, are appointed to oversee these churches (Acts 14:23). Paul takes his missionary activity as far as Rome, the center of the empire, from where it will continue to spread to the ends of the earth. (Day 334) (TGAB page 1436)

Key Event 68a: Paul's Three Missionary Journeys (Acts 13:1-14:28, 15:36-18:22, 18:23-21:16)

After his conversion, Paul travels the known world, spreading the Good News of Christ. His three missionary journeys (Acts 13-14, 15:36-18:22, 18:23-20:38) take him across Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), Macedonia, and Greece, preaching the gospel to both Jews and Gentiles. (Day 334) (TGAB page 1436)

Key Event 68b: Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15)

The apostles and elders hold a council in Jerusalem to discern whether Gentile converts need to be circumcised. Peter resolves the matter by declaring that we are saved by the grace of Christ, through faith, and thus the Mosaic Law is not binding on these converts. The Council recognizes the Holy Spirit as the inspiration behind their decision (Acts 15:28-29). (Day 336) (TGAB page 1438)

Key Event 68c: John's Apocalypse (Revelation)

The risen Jesus appears to John and directs him to write down seven prophetic messages to the churches of Asia Minor, along with a series of visions that reveal the present and future of God's people. Like other apocalyptic passages in the New Testament (e.g., Lk 21; 2 Thess 2), the visions foretell times of great trial for the Church and the world (see CCC 675-677) before Christ returns and establishes his kingdom. The book of Revelation concludes with a glorious vision of the Church, the Bride of the Lamb, the New Jerusalem, descending from heaven to dwell forever in the presence of God and the Lamb in a new creation. (Day 359) (TGAB page 1566)

Key Event 69: Destruction of the Jerusalem Temple

The destruction of the Temple in AD 70 is not described in the New Testament since it occurred later than the events narrated there. However, it has an important place in the biblical story because it was foretold by Jesus, who wept over the city's future destruction (Lk 19:41-44; Mk 13:2). This catastrophic event, in which the Roman armies burned Jerusalem to the ground and killed or enslaved tens of thousands of Jews, ended the Old Covenant worship with its Levitical priesthood and animal sacrifices. (Day 349) (TGAB page 1456)

Key Event 70: The Second Coming of Christ

The first coming of Christ was for the salvation of the world, in order that those who believe in him "should not perish but have eternal life" (Jn 3:16). Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead (2 Tim 4:1) according to their works (Rom 2:6-11). This will happen at an unexpected time (Mt 24:36-51). Thus, Christians are encouraged to be watchful (Mk 13:32-37). At that time, God will establish a new heaven and a new earth where he will eternally dwell with all the redeemed, where there is no pain, sorrow, or mourning (Rev 21:1-8). (Day 365) (TGAB page 1585)